Seeing animals along the trail is challenging.  We hike rapidly, with eyes on the ground most of the time, the heels of our boots pounding loudly.  This behavior would scare every wild animal away if it weren’t for one thing:  they are often used to us, accustomed to our incongruous way of moving through the wilderness.

Detail of “Explorer of Air” from the Gaian Tarot by Joanna Colbert depicting the author in willow tree with birds..

So we have two choices if we want to experience wildlife along the trail.  Either we change the way we hike, or we take advantage of the animals’ complacency.  I used to do the former, walking in various ways that would quiet my footfalls, plus broadening my area of sight by using “wide-angle vision” so I could look upward while also paying attention to the trail underfoot.

Needless to say, my hiking partners began to leave me in the dust, but I started seeing other people out there, people I hadn’t noticed before.  They would move slowly in the wilderness, with focused interest in tracking animals, or in the edible and medicinal gifts of plants.  Meeting them was life changing for me, and in this article, I will share with you the most exciting skill I learned in order to experience a plethora of wildlife along the trail:  how bird vocalizations can indicate, among other surprises, where animals are hidden.

“Two of Air” from the Gaian Tarot by Joanna Colbert with Cedar Waxwings in blooming Hawthorn Tree.

Nature’s Internet

Of all animals, birds in particular are in constant communication with one another.  We can take advantage of their vocalizations to find not only them, but also to find the animals they call out.  This activity is not an exact science, since one kind of bird call can sometimes have multiple meanings, but it doesn’t matter.  So what if half of the times you follow a bird call, you can’t find what their fuss was about?  Maybe half of the time you will!

To be clear, birds don’t sing randomly.  Like all wild animals, they do everything with purpose, because wasting energy can bring death.  So each bird has a range of voices and calls, specific to particular circumstances.  If we can understand their vocalizations, we will know their secrets, and get advance notice of events taking place all around us.  Who wouldn’t want to know if someone is ahead on the trail, or whether a bear is foraging in the salmonberries just out of sight?

Bird Alarms

Imagine a bobcat stalking a robin, which in turn is hunting worms on the edge of a field.  If the robin sees that bobcat, the robin will fly to safety and give sharp alarm calls, which will be repeated by surrounding song birds, and then echoed less stridently by birds further in the distance.

Similarly, if you plop a pebble in a pond, it will send out concentric waves.  Same goes for anything that happens in nature.  A silently stalking cougar will try to send less pronounced waves, but if a stellar’s jay sees it, the resulting call be like a boulder splashing into the metaphorical pond.

Animals will also try to take advantage of an “already wavy pond” by moving during a gust of wind, or moving near loud, rushing water.  They’ll even move at the same time you walk loudly down the trail!  This phenomenon becomes even more pronounced in the city, where I’ve found that birds will only bother passing messages within their surrounding block, because so much is happening within a small vicinity.

Putting up bird feeders, like this suet which attracted a flock of bushtits to my yard this winter, is a great way to learn “companion calls.”


Other Vocalizations

In the wilderness, I’ve noticed birds communicating about events taking place a mile away, and it’s always been fun to confirm whether my interpretations were correct.  The stories are many, but I instead of sharing them now, I want to give credit to the popularization of this “concentric rings of communication” concept to Tom Brown, Jr.’s as one of his positive contributions to naturalist study, and to his first student, Jon Young, who helped to quantify the concept further as “bird language.”

Young places bird language into 5 categories: Songs; Companion Calls; Intra-Species Conflict Calls; Begging Calls; and Alarm Calls.  After years of experimenting with these categories of bird vocalizations, I have taken the liberty to add the following sub-categories, which I call the “3×5” system.  The order is important, as the last sub-category in each section flows into the first sub-category of the next, starting at the top with the beginning of a bird’s life, and ending with its death:

Five of Air” from the Gaian Tarot by Joanna Colbert depicting “intra-species aggression” between Bald Eagles.






























Companion Calls:




Alarm Calls:



death cry

Fortunately, you only have to learn some of these vocalizations, as some are more important than others.  Further, you only need to learn them for a small number of birds.  In fact, just start with the robin since it can be found in city and wilderness during most seasons of the year.  Or, if you only care about what’s happening in the Pacific Northwest wilderness, then learn the vocalizations of the winter wren, as it lives year-round in the understory.

You will hear the “panic” and “death cry” calls from songbirds when small raptors come around, like this sharp-shin hawk did in my yard this winter.


Why Birds Sing

If you’ve hiked through a northwest forest, then you’ve probably passed dozens of winter wrens.  They’re the ones that sing like crazy on the ground, but are so small that they are an extreme challenge to see.  If you hear them singing, then there’s probably no predation or other disturbance going on around you.

But if you hear a winter wren giving a slowly repeating “tsk” call, then they are upset about something.  Might be you.  Might be a bear walking too close to their nest.  If you hear it giving a rapid-fire “tsk, tsk” call, then a short-tailed weasel might be threatening its nest.

Something you can do right now is go outside, find a robin, and follow it around.  It’s amazing how incredibly few outdoorspersons can recognize a robin’s song, one of the most beautiful in nature.  But within a half hour outside, you will be whistling along with it.

Robins (and most male songbirds during nesting season) will go around singing to mark the edges of their territories which are often much less than 1 acre in size.  What a wonderful way to spend a few minutes!  If you get too close, or if a cat walks by, then you’ll also learn its “caution” and “danger” calls.  Then, the next time you’re in the wilderness, listen for those calls, find the robin, and maybe you’ll see where a barred owl is roosting for the day, something I’ve experienced many times!

Ready to start learning the secrets of bird language?  Check out the various excellent internet sites to look up and listen to bird songs and calls.  Employ any birding field guide to identify which bird, or small set of birds, you see most and whose voices you want to learn.  If you don’t have one yet, the best for beginners and intermediate-level birders is the Golden Guide to Birds of North America since it has everything you need while being the cheapest and easiest to use.

Track of a Great Blue Heron compared to image found in Wildlife of the Pacific Northwest by David Moskowitz.

You can also try out some field exercises I designed to teach students about birds and their vocalizations in Chapter 8 of my Wolf Journey Earth Skills Training Course


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